By David J. Rowland and Megan P. Toth

Seyfarth SynopsisThe Eleventh Circuit is the next to find a long-term leave of absence is not a reasonable accommodation under the ADA.

Just a few months after a recent and definitive decision by the Seventh Circuit that multi-month leaves of absence, even those that are definite in term and sought in advance, are not required by the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), the Eleventh Circuit has issued a similar opinion. This decision may signal a growing trend that courts are attempting to curb the abuse of long-term leaves of absence under the ADA that has been rampant and debilitating to employers for many years.

In the recent Eleventh Circuit case, Billups v. Emerald Coast Utilities Authority, the plaintiff injured his shoulder at work and took Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) leave.  He was not able to have corrective surgery during this time, so under the employers medical leave policy, he was granted another three-month medical leave.  However, at the end of this period — a total of six months of leave — the employee was still not medically able to return to work. He told the employer that he had a doctors appoint in a month and would likely be released to work in six weeks, but it was unclear whether he would have any restrictions at that time. Thus, the employer terminated the plaintiff’s employment and he sued, alleging failure by the employer to provide additional leave as an ADA reasonable accommodation.

The Eleventh Circuit affirmed dismissal of the plaintiff’s claim on summary judgment. The plaintiff acknowledged that case precedent says that employers are not required to provide indefinite leaves. However, he argued that these prior decisions involved situations where employees suffered from chronic medical conditions that could continue indefinitely. In this case, the plaintiff contended that an unspecified leave was reasonable because there was a projected end date and once concluded, his medical condition would be resolved without the potential need for additional leave.

The Eleventh Circuit rejected this argument finding that even though the plaintiff would eventually recover, his request was essentially an “open-ended request” for leave of a sufficient time to recover, which is not reasonable under the ADA.  The Court also noted that the employer did not violate the ADA because it already provided six months of leave and the plaintiff inarguably could not perform the essential functions of his job at the time of his termination, with or without a reasonable accommodation and therefore he was not a qualified individual.  Thus, the court found that regardless of the nature of his underlying medical condition and his projected but uncertain recovery, the employer was not required to provide continued long-term leave.

It appears that the Seventh Circuit is not the lone-ranger in its attempt to invalidate the EEOC’s historic and strongly advocated position that long-term leaves are required “reasonable accommodations” under the ADA.  If other circuits continue to follow suit, employers may no longer have a legal obligation to provide lengthy post-FMLA leaves of absence, without the need to justify the denial based on specific business needs.  This case also demonstrates the importance of requesting updated medical information from employees nearing the end of FMLA or other medical leave periods.

If an employee cannot medically substantiate that they can return to work close to the expiration of their FMLA leave, employers may have greater legal flexibility in determining whether or not to accommodate the request. While employers should be aware of this apparently growing trend and may choose to adjust their leave and accommodation approaches accordingly, they still must approach long-term and indefinite leave requests very carefully as there are conflicting decisions from other circuits and the EEOC’s position will remain unchanged unless the U.S. Supreme Court ultimately sides with the Seventh and Eleventh Circuits.

If you have any questions regarding this area or need assistance evaluating whether to grant or deny long-term or indefinite leave requests, please contact the authors, your Seyfarth Attorney or a member of the Firm’s Absence Management and Accommodations Team.

By Tracy M. Billows and Megan P. Toth

Seyfarth Synopsis:  If your company provides parental leave benefits beyond what is required by law, it is important that the company’s policies and practices ensure male and female employees are being treated consistent with the prohibition of discrimination based on sex.

On August 30, 2017, the EEOC filed suit against Estée Lauder in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania claiming that the cosmetic company discriminated against male employees by implementing a paid parental leave policy that provides lesser parental leave benefits to male employees than to female employees.  EEOC v. Estée Lauder Companies, Inc., No. 2:17-cv-03897-JP (E.D. PA)

The paid parental leave policy at issue in this case–which was implemented by Estée Lauder in 2013–provides “primary caregivers” six weeks of paid parental leave for child bonding and only offers “secondary caregivers” two weeks of paid leave for child bonding.  In addition, “primary caregivers” are also provided with flexible return-to-work benefits that are not similarly provided to “secondary caregivers.” On its face, this policy does not appear to provide different benefits to new mothers or female employees and new fathers or male employees; however, in practice, the company only allows male employees to receive “secondary caregiver” leave benefits under this policy.

This case arose when a male employee’s request for six weeks of child-bonding leave as the “primary caregiver” was denied and he was only allowed to take two weeks of bonding leave.  According to the lawsuit, the company told him that the “primary caregiver” designation only applied in “surrogacy situations.”  The EEOC claims that the practice of only allowing men to take two weeks of paid leave, while allowing women six weeks and flexible return-to-work benefits violates the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Equal Pay Act of 1963.

The EEOC has made it clear that addressing sex-based pay discrimination, including benefits such as paid leave, is a priority.  So it is not surprising that the agency has gone after one of the world’s leading cosmetic companies over this issue and this is probably not the last suit of its kind. With the rising corporate trend of providing generous parental leave benefits to employees, it is important companies who are following this trend to be mindful of their policies and potential claims of disparate treatment and/or disparate impact.

This topic has been on the horizon for some time now and the EEOC is starting to take action. If your company provides parental leave benefits beyond what is required by law, it is important that you review those policies and practices now to ensure male and female employees are being treated consistent with the prohibition of discrimination based on sex.

For more information on this or any related topic please contact the authors, your Seyfarth attorney, or any member of the Absence Management & Accommodations Team or the Workplace Policies and Handbooks Team.

By Bridget M. Maricich

Seyfarth Synopsis: Though only an informal guidance, this resource document reminds employers of the EEOC’s expansive interpretation of what constitutes a reasonable workplace accommodation. Employers should continue to meaningfully engage in the interactive process with any employees seeking workplace accommodations for a physical or mental disability and assiduously document those efforts.

Citing an increase in charges of discrimination based on mental health conditions during fiscal year 2016, the EEOC released a “resource document” on December 12, 2016, explaining “workplace rights” for individuals with mental health conditions under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).  The resource document – Depression, PTSD, & Other Mental Health Conditions in the Workplace: Your Legal Rights – is presented in a question and answer format intended for applicants and employees.  The informal guidance is a useful primer for understanding the EEOC’s expanding stance on employer obligations to provide reasonable workplace accommodations.

At first blush, the resource document is nothing new. In question 1, the EEOC reiterates that employers are prohibited from discriminating against applicants and employees because of a mental health condition.  The document also notes that employers do not have to hire or retain individuals who are unable to perform the essential functions of a job or who pose a direct threat. However, the Agency strongly caveats that employers must “rely on objective evidence,” “not myths or stereotypes,” that would indicate that an individual is unable to perform a job or poses a significant safety risk, even with a reasonable accommodation, before taking an adverse action against the individual.

Question 2 addresses the right of an applicant or employee to keep a mental health condition private. The EEOC notes that under the ADA, employers are only permitted to ask questions about the medical or health information of an applicant or employee when (1) an individual requests a hiring process or workplace accommodation; (2) when the employer requests medical information or testing post-offer, but pre-employment, provided everyone entering the same job category is subject to the same requirement; (3) when the employer is engaging in affirmative action for persons with disabilities; and (4) when there is “objective evidence” that the employee may not be able to do his or her job or poses a safety risk in the workplace because of his or her condition.

Questions 3 through 6 respond to hypothetical questions about when a reasonable accommodation may be required, how to request one, and the employer’s obligation to respond, even when no accommodation exists that permits an employee to fulfill the essential functions of a position. The EEOC’s responses here reveal the breadth of the Agency’s interpretation of the ever-vexing question of what constitutes a reasonable accommodation.  In the first instance, in response to Question 3, the EEOC, without using the word “disability,” states that an individual is entitled to a reasonable accommodation for “any mental health condition that would, if left untreated, ‘substantially limit’ your ability to concentrate, interact with others, communicate, eat, sleep, care for yourself, regulate your thoughts or emotions, or do any other ‘major life activity.’”   The EEOC notes that the mental health condition need not be either permanent or severe to constitute “substantially limiting” and that conditions like major depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) should “easily qualify.”

The answer to Question 3 also provides broad, if imprecise, definition of reasonable accommodation, defining it as simply “some type of change in way things are normally done at work” and providing standard examples such as altered break and work schedules, quiet office space, changes in supervisory methods, along with some more controversial recommendations, such as choice of specific shift assignments and permission to work from home. And in Question 6, the Agency re-states the EEOC’s vague standard that an employee who is unable to perform the essential functions of his or her position, even with an accommodation, may be entitled to an indeterminate amount leave – independent of FMLA leave – that “will help you get to a point whether you can perform those functions.” The document also notes that failing leave, if an employee is “permanently” unable to perform his or her job, he or she may be entitled to job reassignment.  Importantly, the Agency does not caveat here that any request for reasonable accommodation must be fundamentally intended to facilitate the employee’s performance the essential functions of the job. Rather, the document implies that by virtue of having a mental health condition an individual or employee may be entitled to ask for some “change in the way things are normally done at work.”

Questions 4 and 5 fortunately return to well-worn ADA principles. The EEOC directs employees who need a reasonable accommodation to ask for one and encourages employees to do so before workplace difficulties arise because “an employer does not have to excuse poor job performance, even if it was caused by a medical condition or the side effects of medication.” The EEOC also notes that  employers are entitled to ask for health care provider documentation verifying the employee has a mental health condition and requires a workplace accommodation because of it.  The document provides the link to what it terms the “companion document” –The Mental Health Provider’s Role in a Client’s Request for a Reasonable Accommodation at Work .  The EEOC suggests that individuals provide the document to their health care providers when seeking medical documentation in relation to a request for a reasonable accommodation.  The document also reminds that if a reasonable accommodation, justified by relevant medical provider documentation, would help an employee do his or her job, the employer must implement it barring “significant difficulty or expense.”

Though only informal guidance, this resource document reminds employers of the EEOC’s expansive interpretation of what constitutes a reasonable workplace accommodation.   What does that mean for employers? Employers should continue to meaningfully engage in the interactive process with any employees seeking workplace accommodations for a physical or mental disability and assiduously document those efforts.  In light of this guidance, however, employers should strongly consider seeking trusted legal counsel before denying a requested accommodation or taking adverse action against an employee who has or is seeking an accommodation.

For more information on this topic, please contact the authors, your Seyfarth Attorney, or any member of the Firm’s Absence Management and Accommodations Team.

By David J. Rowland

Seyfarth Synopsis: A divided panel of the Eighth Circuit recently decided that an employer may be required to assume or infer from the circumstances that an employee is seeking a reasonable accommodation – even when no affirmative request is made.

The courts and the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) have made clear for decades that an employer’s obligation to engage in the interactive process under the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) is not triggered until the employee seeking reasonable accommodation actually requests assistance.

To quote a recent case decided by the EEOC: “generally an individual with a disability must request a reasonable accommodation by letting the [employer] know the individual needs an adjustment or change at work for a reason related to a medical condition” Adina P. v. Brennan, 2016 EEOPUB LEXIS 336 (EEOC 2016).  To be sure, no “magic words” have been required and no court would expect each employee to ask for a “reasonable accommodation” by those words, but, until now, courts have uniformly required that an employee at least indicate that she wants help or assistance because of a disability.

Earlier this month, though, a divided panel of the Eight Circuit Court of Appeals, lowered the bar substantially and held that a jury should determine whether an employee requested a reasonable accommodation by simply notifying her supervisor that she could not obtain a required CPR certification until after she completed physical therapy. See Kowitz v. Trinity Health, et al., Case No. 15-1584 (8th Cir. October 17, 2016). The employee never asked to be given extra time to complete the certification, nor to be transferred to another position that did not require CPR certification.  Still, the majority held that a reasonable jury could find that the employer “understood” the employee’s communications to be a request for accommodation. Id. at p. 9, n. 1.

The dissenting judge reiterated the point that virtually every employer would assume to be true: “an employee who wants additional assistance cannot ‘expect the employer to read her mind and know she secretly wanted a particular accommodation and then sue the employer for not providing it” Id. at p.12 (citation omitted).

Blurring a Bright Line

Thus, what was a bright line rule has been blurred, but, as usual, the particular facts of the case may have driven the majority to this hand-scratcher of a result.

The plaintiff was a respiratory therapist with cervical spinal stenosis, She had undergone surgery, and had returned to work on October 19, 2010 with the restriction of a reduced schedule until November 29, 2010 (yes, the dates may be important).   In the meantime, on November 19, 2010, her supervisor posted a memo directing all of the respiratory therapy department’s employees to provide updated copies of their basic life support (BSR) certifications by November 26 and added :”If you are not up to date you will need to submit a letter indicating why you are not up to date and the date you are scheduled to take the BSR class”.

On November 30, having already passed the written component of the BSR test, the employee wrote a letter to her supervisor indicating that she “will not to be able to do the physical part of the BSR” until cleared by her doctor, with whom she had an appointment on December 2 and also thanked the supervisor “for understanding [her] condition”. On December 2, the employee’s doctor opined that she could not take the physical portion of the BSR test until she had completed at least four additional months of therapy.  The employee left a voicemail with the supervisor that evening.  The very next day, December 3, she was terminated for failing to provide the certification.

This sequence of events (and perhaps the seemingly harsh and abrupt decision to terminate) lead the majority to conclude that the employee’s written notification of the need for clearance and her follow-up communication about needing four months of therapy “could readily have been understood to constitute a request for reasonable accommodation”. Id. at 9.

Bad facts often make for bad law, and many employers in the same circumstances would have taken the logical step of engaging the employee in an interactive dialogue. But, as the dissent rightly noted,  the idea that there can be such a thing as an implied or understood  request for accommodation generates “regrettable uncertainty” by “eliminating the requirement of a clear request for accommodation”.  Id. at 13.

Employers take heed: a request for reasonable accommodation may be implied by the circumstances in some instances.  As a result, it is more dangerous than ever to ignore the warning signs that an employee is seeking help.

For more information on this topic, please contact the author, your Seyfarth Attorney or a member of the Firm’s Absence Management and Accommodations Team.

By Lucas Deloach

Seyfarth Synopsis: Recent research suggests employers will manage an increasing number of employee requests for caregiving leave.

The U.S. Department of Labor’s Chief Evaluation Office has issued research briefs discussing two commissioned studies that examined paid family leave programs in California, New Jersey, and Rhode Island. Those studies reveal trend lines in paid family leave and may assist employers in anticipating future compliance challenges.

Currently, requests for leave to care for infirm relatives (“caregiving leave”) pale in comparison to requests for leave to care for newborn children (“bonding leave”), but that could change. In one of the studies examining the use of paid family leave in caregiver and parental groups, the researchers found that “[u]tilization of paid family leave programs in both California and New Jersey has grown steadily since implementation,” but claims for bonding leave far outweighed claims for caregiving leave.  Russell Tisinger et al., L&M Policy Research, LLC, Understanding Attitudes on Paid Family Leave: Discussions with Parents and Caregivers in California, New Jersey and Rhode Island 8 (July 2016). For example, in 2014, 88 percent of claims in California were for bonding leave. Id. at 9.  However, in summarizing the second study — focused exclusively on the effect of paid family leave benefits on adult child caregivers — the researchers noted that one in five individuals will be 65 or older by 2030, foretelling an upswing in the percentage of workers who may find it necessary to take leave and care for an aging relative.  Brant Morefield et al., L&M Policy Research, LLC, Leaving it to the Family: the Effects of Paid Leave on Adult Child Caregivers 3 (July 2016).  Of course, any increase in such requests could be mitigated by employees who choose to forego or limit leave and request the services of paid caregivers.  In fact, the Bureau of Labor Statistics projects employment of home health aides will grow of 38 percent from 2014 to 2024 and notes “[a]s the baby-boom population ages and the elderly population grows, demand for the services of home health aides to provide assistance will continue to increase.”

Demographic shifts are not the only driver of the potential increase in requests for caregiving leave. Legislative and administrative action may also influence caregiving leave utilization rates, as well.  As we have discussed, California recently decided to increase the level of benefits provided to individuals in its Paid Family Leave program, and only days later, New York passed a Paid Family Leave law that will go into effect on January 1, 2018.  As paid family leave benefits expand into other jurisdictions, so may employees’ willingness to take leave and care for an infirm relative.  As the researchers note, “the most commonly cited reason for unmet leave was an inability to afford it.” Morefield et al., at 3.

Many employers, in jurisdictions with paid family leave or otherwise, have developed robust bonding leave policies and/or policies addressing unpaid leave pursuant to the Family and Medical Leave Act. However, due to its comparative infrequency, employers may not have devoted particular attention to caregiving leave.  For the reasons above, employers should scrutinize their policies related to paid time off, leaves of absence, and family and medical leave.  As noted in the aforementioned studies, there may be important practical differences between requests for bonding leave and leave for adult caregiving purposes, insofar as “[e]ldercare givers typically hold a different place in the earnings life cycle than new parents and face leave spells that likely differ from a maternity- or paternity-type leave.” Id. at 4.  Thus, caregiving leave requests likely require individualized attention and employers should evaluate their related procedures to ensure they reflect that reality.  Of course, policies and procedures should also be crafted in harmony with other employee benefits, should address the interplay between paid and unpaid leave, where applicable, and should satisfy the particular requirements of state or local law.

For more information on this or any related topic please contact the authors, your Seyfarth attorney, or any member of the Workplace Policies and Handbooks Team.

By Megan P. Toth

Seyfarth Synopsis: Illinois enacts child bereavement leave, requiring employers provide paid leave should an employee experience the loss of a child.

On July 29, 2016, Illinois became one of only two states (the other being Oregon) to require certain employers provide unpaid leave to employees who suffer the loss of a child. Under the Illinois Child Bereavement Leave Act (CBLA), Illinois employers with 50 or more employees must provide covered employees with up to two weeks (10 work days) of unpaid leave.

Who is Covered? The CBLA defines “employer” and “employee” in the same manner as the Family Medical Leave Act (FMLA). Therefore, any employer subject to the FMLA is covered by the CBLA and any employee eligible to take leave under the FMLA is eligible to take leave under the CBLA.

How Can Employees Use Bereavement Used? Employees must use CBLA leave within 60 days after the employee receives notice of the death of a child. “Child” is defined as “an employee’s son or daughter who is a biological, adopted, or foster child, a stepchild, a legal ward, or a child of a person standing in loco parentis.”

Employees may use child bereavement leave for the following purposes: (1) to attend the funeral, or an alternative to a funeral, of a child; (2) to make arrangements necessitated by the death of the child; or (3) to grieve the death of the child.

Employees may elect to substitute paid leave for unpaid leave under the CBLA, but unlike the FMLA, employers may not require employees to do so. Employees are not entitled to more unpaid leave beyond what is available under the FMLA.  In other words, once an employee exhausts their 12 weeks of leave under the FMLA, they are not permitted to take an additional 10 days for the loss of a child (unless the employer opts to provide such additional leave).

If an employee loses more than one child in any 12-month period they are entitled to take up to six weeks of unpaid bereavement leave in that 12-month period.

What are the Employees’ Obligations? For leave under the CBLA, an employee must provide at least 48 hours’ notice of their intention to take leave under the CBLA, unless it is not reasonable and practicable.  An employer may require the employee requesting leave provide reasonable documentation, including a death certificate, a published obituary, or written verification of death, burial, or memorial services from a mortuary, funeral home, burial society, crematorium, religious institution, or government agency.

What Should You Do if You Are a Covered Employer?

  • Review and revise your employee handbooks and/or leave policies as necessary to ensure a child bereavement leave policy is included.
  • Notify employees that Illinois has enacted the Child Bereavement Leave Act, inform them of their rights and obligations under the CBLA, and tell them that if they lose a child that they should contact Human Resources for more information regarding the company’s child bereavement leave policy.
  • Ensure management-level employees should understand employees’ rights and obligations under the CBLA, as well as the company’s obligations, including the CBLA’s no-retaliation provision.

For more information on this or any related topic please contact the author, your Seyfarth attorney, or any member of the Workplace Policies and Handbooks Team.

By Tracy M. Billows and Sara Eber Fowler

Seyfarth Synopsis: The EEOC recently issued “new” guidance for addressing leave as a reasonable accommodation. Employers must remember to consider unpaid leave as an accommodation, when appropriate, even if an employee would not otherwise be entitled to a leave of absence. 

Recently, the EEOC published “new” guidelines about the rights of employees seeking leave as a reasonable accommodation under the Americans with Disabilities Act (“ADA”), “Employer-Provided Leave and the Americans with Disabilities Act.”  The publication is intended to guide employers about when and how leave must be granted “to promote voluntary compliance with the ADA.”  While essentially reiterating the EEOC’s long established positions on many facets of leave as an accommodation, the guidance specifically highlights several “trends” observed in recent ADA charges and discusses how the EEOC views such practices.

What’s on the EEOC’s radar?

  • Maximum leave policies — policies limiting the amount of leave an employee can take
  • “100 percent healed” policies — policies that do not allow employees to return to work if they have ongoing medical restrictions
  • Policies that do not consider reassignment as a potential accommodation

At its core, the guidance probably does not tell you anything you did not already know – ADA accommodations are incredibly fact-intensive and employers must engage in the interactive process, address an employee’s needs on a case-by-case basis, and unpaid leave as a possible accommodation.

You have also probably heard that, in the world of the ADA, some rules (aka, policies) are meant to be broken. But just in case the message has not quite sunk in, the EEOC makes their case quite clear: “the ADA’s reasonable accommodation obligation is to require employers to change the way things are customarily done to enable employees with disabilities to work.” The guidance also provides examples of how the EEOC views employers’ obligations under various scenarios.

So before you go pointing to Part IV, Section 2.6, subpart (b) of your Employee Handbook and denying an employee’s accommodation request, be sure to consider the following tips from the EEOC.

  • Unpaid Leave. Employers MUST consider unpaid leave as a reasonable accommodation, “if the employee requires it,” and so long as doing so does not create an undue hardship. The EEOC cautions that it does not matter if an employee already exhausted the leave available under company policy or the FMLA, or if the employee is not otherwise eligible for leave.  So, for example, if your leave policy only covers employees who work a minimum amount of hours per week or who have worked for a minimum duration, you still must consider whether unpaid leave is a reasonable accommodation, notwithstanding the employee’s ineligibility.  Per the EEOC, “[t]he ADA requires that employers make exceptions to their policies, including leave policies, in order to provide a reasonable accommodation.”
  • “Maximum leave policies” may be permissible, but employers must grant exceptions when necessary as an accommodation.  For instance, an employer who grants its employees five absences per year before being subjected to discipline may need to adjust its policy — as applied to absences for a disability — as a reasonable accommodation.
  • “100% healed policies” may easily run afoul of the ADA. Employers cannot prohibit employees from returning to work merely because they have ongoing medical restrictions.  In fact, the EEOC makes its position extremely clear: “An employer will violate the ADA if it requires an employee with a disability to have no medical restrictions” before returning to work where the employee can perform her job with or without a reasonable accommodation, unless undue hardship or a direct threat would result.  In short, where employees seek to return from leave with ongoing medical restrictions, employers must engage in the interactive process and determine whether those restrictions can be accommodated.
  • Reassignment is a potential accommodation. The EEOC’s position is that, if reassignment is required, an employer must (1) place the employee in a vacant position for which he is qualified; and (2) cannot require that the employee compete with other applicants for the open position.  (Note: this does not include promotions or uniform seniority systems.)  This position is not new for the EEOC, but now, there is no mistaking its stance.
  • Undue hardship remains a defense to providing an accommodation. The EEOC lists several factors to consider in assessing whether an accommodation would result in an undue hardship, including (i) the amount and/or length of leave required; (ii) the frequency of the leave; (iii) whether there is any flexibility as to the days the leave is taken; (iv) whether the need for intermittent leave is predictable or unpredictable; (v) the impact of the employee’s absence on coworkers and whether specific job duties are being performed in an appropriate and timely manner; and (vi) the impact on a company’s operations and its ability to serve customers/clients (which also takes into consideration a company’s size).  Generally, the guidance is not clear on when these factors may result in an undue hardship.  But, the EEOC reiterated that indefinite leave — an inability to say when or if an employee will return to work at all — IS an undue hardship and is NOT a reasonable accommodation.

Addressing requests for accommodation are challenging, particularly when they involve leaves of absence. And though these guidelines are not binding, they provide helpful tools when engaging in the interactive process and may help avoid landing on the EEOC’s radar.

For more information about this article, please contact the authors, your Seyfarth Attorney or a member of the Firm’s Absence Management and Accommodations Team. [http://www.seyfarth.com/Absence-Management-and-Accommodations]