Seyfarth Synopsis: On April 10, 2019, the EEOC released its comprehensive enforcement and litigation statistics for Fiscal Year 2018. The release arrived a few months later than usual – likely due to the recent government shutdown – but still packed a punch in several respects, including to the back-drop on retaliation and sex discrimination charges in the midst of the #MeToo movement, the number of merits lawsuits filed, and significant monetary recoveries, as well as a reduced charge inventory. It is a must-read for all employers.
On April 10, 2019, the EEOC released its comprehensive enforcement and litigation statistics for Fiscal Year 2018 (available here). In addition to enforcement and litigation activity, the data breaks down charge statistics by allegation and state – showing which charges are being filed the most and where. Although the dip in total charges filed certainly stands out, so does the prominence of retaliation and sex discrimination charges in the #MeToo era. The statistics are somewhat of a “report card” on the Commission’s activities, and also illustrates the continued increase in the number of lawsuits filed by the EEOC overall, as well as the number of systemic lawsuits filed specifically, and touts the substantial monetary recoveries that the EEOC continues to reel in from employers. The data also mark the EEOC’s accomplishments in reducing its charge inventory.
Charges Are Down Overall
In total, 76,418 charges were filed in FY 2018. Not only is this down from 84,254 charges in FY 2017, but FY 2018 saw the third fewest charges filed for all fiscal years going back to FY 1997 according to the EEOC’s data, above only FY 2006 (with 75,768 charges) and FY 2005 (75,428). Further putting FY 2018’s drop to 76,418 charges in perspective, the number of charges filed exceeded 80,000 every other year starting in FY 2007, by 8,000 to 19,000 in most of them.
Consistent with this overall decline, there was a decrease in almost every category of charges in FY 2018 from FY 2017, with the exceptions of some modest increases in Equal Pay Act and genetic information charges at the very bottom of the list. The category that decreased the most was race, by 3,928 charges – or almost 14% – from FY 2017 to FY 2018.
While generally down, however, these numbers are still sizable. And outreach to the agency was consistent with prior years, as well, with the EEOC reporting that it addressed 519,000 calls to its toll-free number and more than 200,000 inquiries to its field offices in FY 2018, roughly in the ballpark of 540,000 calls and 155,000 inquiries in FY 2017, respectively.
Texas And Florida Are Still Hot, With California Getting Warmer
Looking at the states where the most charges were filed, the hot spots largely remained the same in FY 2018 as in FY 2017. In fact, 9 out of the top 10 states in FY 2017 also made the cut for FY 2018, except for Alabama knocking Tennessee out of the number 10 spot. As in FY 2017, Texas (with 7,482 charge receipts) and Florida (with 6,617 charge receipts) were the top two states for charges in FY 2018.
Texas and Florida should come as no surprise, given their relative populations according to the most recent census data (found here). But population is not everything. For example, Georgia (at number 4) surpasses states with higher populations, and Illinois and Pennsylvania each have more filings than New York. And, although one might expect California to be number one given that it is the most populous state, its strong state discrimination statute tends to claim charges that may otherwise have been filed with the federal agency. Nevertheless, while the top 10 list on the whole was fairly static from the prior fiscal year, California was a notable exception, leaping from having the sixth most charges filed in FY 2017 to the third most charges filed in FY 2018.
Retaliation Charges Remain In First, With Sex Discrimination A Notable Second
In total, 39,469 retaliation charges were filed with the EEOC in FY 2018. As has been the case for the past five years, this made retaliation the most frequently filed charge in FY 2018. Also noteworthy, retaliation charges crept over the 50% marker in FY 2018, continuing a steady annual increase from 42.8% of the total charges filed in FY 2014.
Behind retaliation were sex, disability and race charges, each approximately 32% of the total charges filed with the EEOC. (As the EEOC notes, the percentages total more than 100 because some charges allege multiple bases.)
Sex discrimination charges (which would include pregnancy discrimination, gender discrimination, and sexual harassment) were particularly notable in that they edged out disability and race charges by a tenth of a percent to claim the number-two spot, after being the fourth most frequently filed charge in FY 2017. Breaking down the data for sex charges further, there were 7,609 sexual harassment charges filed with the EEOC in FY 2018, making for a sizable jump of 13.6% over the prior fiscal year.
No doubt, these trends in sexual discrimination and retaliation charges were fueled by the “significant impact of the #MeToo movement,” as noted by Acting Chair Victoria A. Lipnic. Indeed, the EEOC’s commitment in this area has not wavered in light of the increased visibility of workplace sexual harassment resulting high-profile media coverage in 2018. As reported previously, the 41 sexual harassment lawsuits filed by the EEOC in FY 2018 marked a 5-year high. And the EEOC also reported a total recovery of $56.6 million for alleged victims of sexual harassment in FY 2018.
EEOC Keeping Its Foot On The Gas
Overall, the statistics show that the EEOC filed 199 merits lawsuits in FY 2018, up from 184 merits lawsuits filed in FY 2017. While not as dramatic a spike from the year before – in which the EEOC more than doubled the number of merits lawsuits it filed compared to the prior fiscal year – the appreciable growth in FY 2018 on top of that jump should not be overlooked. The EEOC reports that 117 of those lawsuits were on behalf of individuals, 45 were non-systemic suits with multiple victims, and another 37 were systemic claims.
The EEOC labels a case as “systemic” if it “has a broad impact on an industry, company or geographic area.” As such, these cases pose heightened exposure. In terms of percentages, systemic lawsuits accounted for about 18.5% of the total number of filings, which is consistent with prior years (16% of all merits lawsuits in FY 2017 and 20% in FY 2016). Looking at the numbers, however, the 37 systemic lawsuits filed in FY 2018 was up from 30 that the EEOC filed in FY 2017, 18 in FY 2016 and 16 in FY 2015. As with the number of merits lawsuits filed, the number of systemic lawsuits may not have risen quite as dramatically as it did in FY 2017. Nevertheless, employers should pay attention as the number continues to rise in FY 2018 even in the wake FY 2017’s spike. Clearly, the EEOC is not shying away from pursuing these “bet-the-company” cases.
The EEOC boasted substantial recoveries to boot. Specifically, the EEOC secured more than half a billion dollars ($505 million) in total relief for alleged discrimination victims in FY 2018. This marks a substantial increase from $484 million in FY 2017 and $482.1 million in FY 2016.
Bringing Down The Backlog
Another priority of the EEOC in recent years has been reducing the large backlog of pending charges, which had been a longstanding issue for the agency. In FY 2018, the EEOC resolved 90,558 charges. This was down from 99,109 charges resolved in FY 2017 and 97,443 charges in FY 2016. Nevertheless, the EEOC still decreased its charge inventory by 19.5%, to 49,607 in FY 2018, following up on FY 2017, in which the EEOC decreased its charge inventory by 16.2% to 61,621. Indeed, as Acting Chair Lipnic noted for FY 2018, the data reflected the “lowest inventory of private sector charges in a dozen years.” The EEOC attributed its success in this area to new strategies for prioritizing charges and resolving them more efficiently, and with the assistance of enhanced technology.
Implications For Employers
Despite the dips in overall charges filed, the EEOC’s enforcement efforts remain robust, and the EEOC continues to get results, as demonstrated by its recovery statistics. And, by reducing its backlog, the EEOC is freeing up its resources for further enforcement efforts. As noted in our other reports, clearly the EEOC is aggressively pursuing its strategic goals under the current administration. Employers should keep an eye on these statistics, especially with retaliation and sex discrimination issues firmly in the forefront. And, by continuing to set the culture in their workplaces through leadership and accountability, along with sound human resources practices such as sharp written policies, comprehensive training and robust response protocols, employers can guard against these issues, which clearly are not going away.